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A.D. History Podcast

Historical Jesus: What Do We Know? & Founding the Kushan Empire | 31AD – 40AD

In today’s A.D. History Podcast, we probe what historians know about the historical Jesus. As well as learn the origins of the Kushan Empire.



In this most recent addition of A.D. History, Paul K. DiCostanzo and Patrick Foote dive into the study of historical Jesus regarding his adult life, public ministry and crucifixion. Paul and Patrick also break ground of the lesser known Kushan Empire, the Central Asian power that served as dual gatekeeper and buffer state for both the ancient Far East and West. 

What do historians know about the life of Jesus of Nazareth?

In the study of history, Jesus of Nazareth is a figure of great interest. Yet the study of his life through the historian’s lens is very different than that of a theologian or religious studies scholar, however none are mutually exclusive to the others – sharing some similarities.

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In this segment Paul and Patrick seek to explore various aspects of Jesus in regards to history, how he would have been viewed at that juncture, and where these events fit in the bigger picture. 

Most credible scholars relating to the study about Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure concur on a few key points regarding the events of his lifetime. Foremost, historians believe he was born under unknown circumstances between 1BC and 4AD. Moreover, Jesus was also a single figure, raised in the Jewish tradition, likely spoke in part several common languages used in 1st Century Roman Palestine such as ancient Aramaic.

Jesus’ well known movement in the form of a public ministry, lasted three years occurring between 28AD and 33AD. Furthermore Jesus was sentenced to death under Roman authority by Pontius Pilate, and died by crucifixion on-or-near Passover in Jerusalem in his early 30’s.

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Historians aside from these aforementioned points enjoy far less certainty or consensus about the details of Jesus of Nazareth’s life. Titus Flavius Josephus and Roman historian Tacitus serve as the best early, non-Christian sources making unambiguous and meaningful reference to Jesus’ life, his following during his life, and the growth of Christianity after his death. 

Josephus, a former Roman slave and hellenized Jew, makes first mention of Jesus’ life and fate in his noted history of Judaism leading to the first century in Antiquities of the Jews, believed by scholars to be written in the mid 90’s AD.

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Introducing the A.D. History Podcast

Tacitus in writing The Annals during the 120’s AD, also mentions Jesus in his recounting of Emperor Nero using Roman Christians as scapegoats, wrongly blaming and subsequently torturing them for the famous great fire of Rome in 64AD.

Paul and Patrick also explore various contentious archeological findings that might shed further light on major figures depicted prominently within the four gospels of the Christian New Testament; such as the Roman governor of First Century Roman Palestine, Pontius Pilate. As well as Joseph ben Caiaphas, the head of the Sanhedrin – a body tasked with matters pertaining to governing the Jews on issues deemed within their scope of local autonomy by Rome.

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Kushan Empire: The Gatekeeper for the Eastern and Western Worlds

In the ancient world of this period and region, history is often dominated by the Roman and Han Chinese juggernauts. Yet these two powers never shared a common border, and their spheres of influence end on the periphery of Central Asia. In the large portion of the significant territory separating them, one of the major rising powers was the Kushan Empire.

The Kushan Empire founded in approximately 30AD, at its height extended throughout the territories of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan as well as portions of eastern Iran and western India. Furthermore the Kushan Empire over its three centuries existence, extended their direct territorial reach from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea to the Indian Ocean.

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The Kushans therefore were extremely well placed on a geostrategic basis, serving as an essential land bridge supporting an immense amount of economic activity between Europe, Africa, and Eurasia with the Indian subcontinent as well as Far Eastern Asian counterparts.

The Kushan Empire is believed by some scholars to have formed from the Yuezhi people, an initially nomadic group that may have originated from a region roughly located near modern-day western Mongolia. However the relationship between the Kushans and their Yuezhi predecessors is still not fully understood.

The Kushan Empire was very unique in regards to it’s cultural identity, and their many surprising external influences. Kushans – in part due to their geographical location – was a crossroads where European and near eastern cultural practices integrated directly with those originating in  East Asia. The cultural amalgam between East and West was most prominent in religion. In addition to the fact Kushans are believed to have spoken a distinctly Indo-European language.

Where to Find & Listen to the A.D. History Podcast

Learn more about the ongoing study into the life of historical Jesus, and the mightily dynamic rise of the Kushan Empire in this newest episode of the A.D. History Podcast. The A.D. History Podcast is available wherever podcasts are found, and YouTube!


Host by Paul K. DiCostanzo, Patrick Foote

Anna Domini voiced by Anna Chloe Moorey

Write to Paul and Patrick at

Listen to the A.D. History Podcast on your Favorite Podcast Platforms: Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Google Podcasts, Amazon Music, Audacy, PandoraiHeartRadioTuneIn, Stitcher, RadioPublic, Pocket Casts, Player FM, Digital Podcast, Podchaser, CastboxPodbean, Spreaker, YouTubeDeezer

The A.D. History Podcast explores the last two thousand years of world history in an innovative new way. Join hosts Paul K. DiCostanzo and Patrick Foote as they examine the past two millennia, beginning in 1 AD, and progressing forward ten years every episode until they reach the modern day. Within each ten-year installment, Paul and Patrick aim to share incredibly important, but often overlooked fascinating historic events and figures from around the world in prospective fashion; attempting to see history through the eyes and in the world of those who lived it. By identifying these sometimes lesser known - but in no way less significant aspects of history - the A.D. History Podcast endeavors to take these many disparate threads and weave a fuller, richer tapestry of true world history from 1AD to HD.